Most of all, your ability to lose weight and look good depends on your genetic profile. Indeed, your genetic profile controls between 25 to 70 percent of all factors affecting weight and body composition. In addition, your genetic profile determines the following.
First and foremost, described below are the genes, in your genetic profile, that influence your weight and body composition.
FTO or Fat Mass and Obesity Associated gene is also known as the fatso gene. In fact, the gene variant FTO acts as a nutrient sensor affecting your hunger and the amount of food you eat. Also, anyone with a particular variation of this gene has a high probability of becoming obese. In addition, a study published in BMJ compared people with and without the FTO gene. First, the study reported that anyone with the FTO gene weighs 6.61 pounds more, on average. Also, anyone with the FTO gene is 1.7 times more likely to be obese. On the other hand, anyone consistently exercising 30 minutes a day, five days a week, turns off this gene.
Melanocortin-4 or MC4R, a receptor gene, controls your hunger, appetite, and energy balance. Regrettably, common variants of this gene effect obesity and insulin resistance. As a result, anyone with this gene is likely obese.
Next, the PPARG gene encodes the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) protein. Indeed, the PPARG gene helps metabolize fat. And, when activated, PPARG creates fat cells along with absorbing dietary fats from your blood. Regrettably, too much activation of this gene leads to weight gain. In fact, obese people have large amounts of PPARG in their fat tissue. On the other hand, people with no PPARG encoded genes have less fat tissue in their limbs and buttocks. Consequently, to combat PPARG encoded genes and lose weight, you should eat more saturated fats than unsaturated fats.
Adrenoceptor Beta 2 (ADRB2) is an Adrenergic beta-2 receptor gene that codes for a protein which helps breakdown fat. Consequently, epinephrine,upon release, binds to ADRB2 to release energy by breaking down fat molecules. Therefore, a good treatment to fight ADRB2 includes exercising and reducing the amount you eat.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) - A high rate of a chemical process called methylation increases metabolism. Above all, methylation adds chemical groups to the genes PGC-1alpha and TFAM (Transcription Factor A, Mitochondrial). As a result, methylation changes the conversion rate of these genes to proteins, thereby regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in your cells. Consequently, eating efficiently and exercising increases methylation, which in turn increases metabolism.
First of all, genes that determine if you can even lose weight include FTO, TCF7L2, MTNR1B, PPARG, BDNF, and ABCB11. In fact, large studies have reported that people who participated in exercise and diet programs, lost less weight if their genetic profile included any of these genes when compared to others who did not. In addition, these people are more likely to get back the weight lost when compared with people without these genes.
Next, the genes, ADRB2 and LPL, control the amount of body fat lost by aerobic or cardio exercises. Most noteworthy, a large study reported that fat lost by men was about the same irrespective of the amount of these two genes. On the other hand, depending on their genetic profile, women lost different amounts of fat. In addition, even with significant fat loss, the genetic profile determined weight lost.
The gene Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) is associated with a person’s insulin and the reaction to carbohydrates in the diet. In fact, a long term study reported that people with a variant of the IRS1 gene, who ate a high carb, low fat diet consisting of high fiber and whole plant foods had greater insulin sensitivity. As a result, because their insulin resistance was lower, their bodies needed lower insulin levels to absorb glucose from the blood. In addition, these people experienced greater weight loss when compared with people eating low carb, high fat diet.
Next, the gene MTHFR has a significant association with a person’s folate or vitamin B9 status. In fact, folate acts as a coenzyme in DNA creation and in energy metabolism. Also, folate has a role in the biochemical processes that affect the metabolism of amino acid and homocysteine. Regrettably, high levels of homocysteine increases risk of heart disease. While low levels of folate causes anemia.
The gene FTO is associated with body fat mass and BMI. In fact, a large study found that anyone, with FTO variants, lost more weight and body fat if they ate a moderate-to-high protein diet (25% of total daily calories) when compared to a low protein diet (15% of total daily calories). However, they also lost muscle with weight loss.
Genes, that improve a person’s body composition while decreasing fat, because of strength training include FTO, NRXN3, GPRC5B, GNPDA2, LRRN6C, PRKD1, SLC39A8, FLJ35779, MAP2K5, QPCTL-GIPR, NEGR1, LRP1B, MTCH2, MTIF3, RPL27A, SEC16B, FAIM2, FANCL, ETV5, and TFAP2B. Above all, strength training increases strength and muscle mass while decreasing body fat, thereby, resulting in better body composition. As a result you have a leaner look and able to burn a lot more calories every day. Especially noteworthy, when you are trying to lose weight it is necessary to do strength training, because it increases muscle mass, to make up for muscle mass lost with dieting or aerobic exercises.
Genes that decide how to react to the fat in your diet include PPARG, TCF7L2, APOA5, CRY2, MTNR1B, and PPM1K. In fact, studies show that the fat content in the diet affected how much weight was lost. Another study reported that people with an unfavorable genetic profile, who ate more fat, were more likely to have more body fat, large waist and high BMR. On the other hand, people with a favorable genetic profile were able to consume greater amounts of fat, but without the higher BMI. Meanwhile, another study reported that people on a low-calorie diet that was higher in fat, lost less weight if they had an unfavorable genetic profile.
For example, people with a specific genetic profile benefit from a high protein diet, lose more weight, have reduced craving for food, and have a low appetite. On the other hand, if you don’t have this genetic profile, a high-protein diet won’t help you lose weight. Similarly, other genetic profiles may make you lose weight with a low-fat diet especially low saturated fat diet.
Furthermore, research shows that those with a specific genetic profile may predispose them to eat fried food thereby making them obese. Also, research shows that someone with a variant of the IRS1 gene is more successful at losing weight with a low-fat and high-carb diet as opposed to a high-fat and low-carb diet.
In addition, your genes don't solely control your weight. Indeed, your lifestyle and your environment significantly affect your weight. For example, very active people have a 30 percent lower risk of being obese even with an obesity genetic profile when compared with inactive people with an obesity genetic profile.
Similarly, adults with an obesity genetic profile who are older are less likely to be obese. On the other hand, younger adults, with an obesity genetic profile, gorging on meals, with sugary drinks and being inactive, are likely to become obese.
Paradoxically, studies have shown that genetics can’t explain why some people lose weight on a low-carb diet like Atkins or why others succeed with a low-fat diet.
In fact, Stanford University Medical School researchers published a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. And, in this study of 609 randomly selected overweight adults went on either a low-fat or a low-carb diet. First of all, the low fat diet consisted of less oil, less fatty meats, full-fat dairy, and nuts. While the low-carb diet consisted of eating smaller portions of cereals, grains, rice, starchy vegetables, and legumes.
Moreover, the study lasted a year after which time one group lost 11.7 pounds while the other group lost 13.2 pounds – hardly a significant difference.
Meanwhile, other research indicated that the PPARG, ADRB2, and FABP2 genes participate in fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, depending on their fat and carbohydrate genetic profiles, each of the two groups were further divided into two subgroups.
In fact, this more finely tuned analysis showed that there was no significant weight change even if their genetic profiles matched up with their low-fat or low-carb diets. In conclusion, whether the body has genetic profile designed for metabolizing fats or carbohydrates does not impact weight.
In conclusion, genetic profiles effects our weight. However, a combination of a healthy diet and exercise has the biggest impact on losing weight. In addition, it impacts body composition so that there is less fat and more muscle.