Most of all, your ability to lose weight and look good depends on your genetic profile. In fact, your genetic profile controls between 25 to 70 percent of all factors affecting your weight and body composition. In addition, your genetic profile determines how your body processes ingested food, how hungry you become, how your body burns calories, how to provide energy for moving your body, and how much you eat.
The genes, in your genetic profile, that influence your weight and body composition are described below.
FTO or Fat Mass and Obesity Associated gene is also known as the fatso gene. In fact, FTO is a gene variant that acts as a nutrient sensor affecting your hunger and the amount of food you eat. Also, anyone with a particular variation of this gene has a high probability of becoming obese. In addition, a study published in BMJ compared people with and without the FTO gene. First the study reported that anyone with the FTO gene weighs 6.61 pounds more, on average. Also, anyone with the FTO gene is 1.7 times more likely to be obese. On the other hand, anyone consistently exercising 30 minutes a day, five days a week, is able to turn off this gene.
Melanocortin-4 or MC4R is a receptor gene that controls your hunger, appetite, and energy balance. Regrettably, common variants of this gene are related to obesity and insulin resistance. As a result, anyone with this gene is likely to be obese.
Next, the PPARG gene encodes the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) protein. Indeed, the PPARG gene is involved in fat metabolism. And, when activated, PPARG creates fat cells along with absorbing dietary fats from your blood. Regrettably, too much activation of this gene leads to weight gain. In fact, obese people have large amounts of PPARG in their fat tissue. On the other hand, people with no PPARG encoded genes have less fat tissue in their limbs and buttocks. Consequently, to combat PPARG encoded genes and lose weight, you should eat more saturated fats than unsaturated fats.
Adrenoceptor Beta 2 (ADRB2) is an Adrenergic beta-2 receptor gene that codes for a protein which helps breakdown fat. As a result, when the hormone epinephrine is released, epinephrine binds to ADRB2 to release energy by breaking down fat molecules. Therefore, exercising and reducing the amount you eat is a good treatment to fight ADRB2.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) – A high rate of a chemical process called methylation increases metabolism. Above all, methylation adds chemical groups to the genes PGC-1alpha and TFAM (Transcription Factor A, Mitochondrial). As a result, methylation changes the rate in which these genes are converted to proteins and regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in your cells. Consequently, eating efficiently and exercising increases methylation, which in turn increases metabolism.
First of all, genes that determine if you can even lose weight include FTO, TCF7L2, MTNR1B, PPARG, BDNF, and ABCB11. In fact, large studies have reported that people who participated in exercise and diet programs, lost less weight if their genetic profile included any of these genes when compared to others who did not. In addition, these people were more likely to get back the weight lost when compared with people who did not have these genes.
Next, ADRB2 and LPL genes control body fat loss by aerobic or cardio exercises. Most noteworthy, a large study reported that the amount of fat lost by men was about the same irrespective of the amount of these two genes. On the other hand, depending on their genetic profile, women lost different amounts of fat. In addition, even with significant fat loss, weight loss depended on the genetic profile.
The gene Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) affects a person’s insulin and the reaction to carbohydrates in the diet. In fact, a long term study reported that people with a variant of the IRS1 gene, who ate a high carb, low fat diet consisting of high fiber and whole plant foods had greater insulin sensitivity. As a result, because of low insulin resistance, their bodies needed lower insulin levels to absorb glucose from the blood. In addition, these people experienced greater weight loss when compared with people eating low carb, high fat diet.
Next, the gene MTHFR has a significant association with a person’s folate or vitamin B9 status. In fact, folate acts as a coenzyme in DNA creation and in energy metabolism. Also, folate has a role in the biochemical processes that affect the metabolism of amino acid and homocysteine. Regrettably, high levels of homocysteine increases risk of heart disease. While low levels of folate causes anemia.
The gene FTO affects body fat mass and BMI. In fact, a large study found that anyone, with FTO variants, lost more weight and body fat if they ate a moderate-to-high protein diet (25% of total daily calories) when compared to a low protein diet (15% of total daily calories). However, they also lost muscle with weight loss.
Genes, that improve a person’s body composition while decreasing fat, because of strength training include FTO, NRXN3, GPRC5B, GNPDA2, LRRN6C, PRKD1, SLC39A8, FLJ35779, MAP2K5, QPCTL-GIPR, NEGR1, LRP1B, MTCH2, MTIF3, RPL27A, SEC16B, FAIM2, FANCL, ETV5, and TFAP2B. Above all, strength training increases strength and muscle mass while decreasing body fat, thereby, resulting in better body composition. As a result you have a leaner look and able to burn a lot more calories every day. Especially noteworthy, when you are trying to lose weight it is necessary to do strength training, because it increases muscle mass, to make up for muscle mass lost with dieting or aerobic exercises.
Genes that decide how to react to the fat in your diet include PPARG, TCF7L2, APOA5, CRY2, MTNR1B, and PPM1K. In fact, studies show that weight loss depended on the fat content in the diet. Another study reported that people with an unfavorable genetic profile, who ate more fat, were more likely to have more body fat, large waist and high BMR. On the other hand, people with a favorable genetic profile were able to consume greater amounts of fat, but without the higher BMI. Meanwhile, another study reported that people, with unfavorable genetic profile, on a low-calorie diet that was higher in fat, lost less weight.
For example, people with specific genetic profile benefit from high protein diet, lose weight, reduced food cravings, and low appetite. On the other hand, if you don’t have this genetic profile, a high-protein diet won’t help you lose weight. Similarly, other genetic profiles may make you lose weight with a low-fat diet especially low saturated fat diet.
Furthermore, research shows that those with a specific genetic profile may predispose them to eat fried food thereby making them obese. Also, research shows that someone with a variant of the IRS1 gene is more successful at losing weight with a low-fat and high-carb diet as opposed to a high-fat and low-carb diet.
In addition, your genes aren’t the only thing controlling your weight. Indeed, your lifestyle and environment also significantly controls your weight. For example, very active people with an obesity genetic profile have 30 percent lower risk of being obese compared to those who aren’t active. Similarly, adults with an obesity genetic profile who are older are less likely to be obese. On the other hand, younger adults, with an obesity genetic profile, gorging on meals, with sugary drinks and being inactive, are likely to become obese.
Paradoxically, studies have shown that genetics can’t explain why some people lose weight on a low-carb diet like Atkins or why others succeed with a low-fat diet.
In fact, Stanford University Medical School researchers published a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. And, this study consisted of 609 overweight adults equally divided into a low-fat diet or a low-carb diet group. First of all, the low fat diet consisted of less oil, less fatty meats, full-fat dairy, and nuts. While the low-carb diet consisted of eating smaller portions of cereals, grains, rice, starchy vegetables, and legumes.
Moreover, the study lasted a year after which time one group lost 11.7 pounds while the other group lost 13.2 pounds – hardly a significant difference.
Meanwhile, other research indicated that the PPARG, ADRB2, and FABP2 genes metabolize either fats or carbohydrates. Therefore, each group had subgroup with genetic profile metabolizing fats and subgroup with a genetic profile metabolizing carbohydrates.
In fact, this more finely tuned analysis showed no significant weight change. In conclusion, neither genetic profile suited for metabolizing fat or genetic profile suited for metabolizing carbohydrates effect weight change.
In conclusion, though genetic profiles effects our weight, a combination of a healthy diet and exercise has the biggest impact on losing weight and body composition that is characterized by decreased fat and/or increased muscles.
Foods with strong aroma appear to have the potential to help lose weight. In fact, two studies describe two different ways of using aroma to achieve that goal.
Above all, people naturally eat smaller bites of food that isn’t very tasty or food that is not familiar. Therefore, we associate smaller bites with food having low flavor or taste.
In addition, research shows that people take smaller bites when food aroma is strong. Indeed, our unconscious self-regulating mind tells us that because the food has strong aroma, it must be rich with calories. As a consequence, we take smaller bites. In addition, the self-regulating mind subconsciously tells us to take fewer number of bites to feel satiated. As a result, we eat less which, in turn, helps with our weight.
On the other hand, when food has very little or no aroma, our unconscious self-regulating mind tells us the food doesn’t have too many calories. As a consequence, we take bigger bites. In addition, our subconscious mind tells us that since the food likely doesn’t have too many calories, it’s OK to take many bites. As a result, we likely eat more, which, in turn, causes us to put on weight.
In fact, a similar effect occurs with taste. For example, we eat small amounts with each “bite” of a very salty soup. And likely we won’t take too many such “bites” of the soup. On the other hand, if the soup isn’t salty, we eat larger amounts of the soup with each “bite”. And likely we take too many “bites” of the soup.
Incidentally, the “bite” size reduction with salty soup is about 5%. Similarly, the “bite” size is reduced by about 5% for foods with aroma.
Indeed, the key here is self-regulation. That you are consciously trying to not overeat. A similar thing happens, when you have a mouth-watering aromatic chocolate cake in front of you. No doubt, you would want to eat the biggest piece of mouth-watering cake. However, your self-regulating mind causes you to take a smaller piece. Then, eat that by further taking small bites while reducing the number of bites.
Or, if you have a low aromatic salad, you associate the low aromatic salad with fewer calories. Consequently, you not only take bigger bites of the salad but you take more of them.
On the other hand, this method does not work for someone whose eating habits are not self-regulated. In fact, you may be just the kind of a person, who, if they see a chocolate cake in front of you, you may eat not one slice, but even two or three slices. And if you have some very tasty and mouth-watering aromatic foods, you are tempted to take bigger bites and more of them.
In conclusion, the method works for anyone who has a self-regulating mind when it comes to food.
Meanwhile, a new study reports that breathing the strong aroma of indulging high-calorie foods for more than two minutes satisfies your taste buds and your stomach. And, this reduces the temptation to eat the high calorie indulging food.
So, the next time you come across the strong aroma of indulging food, wait for two minutes or more before deciding on taking a bite. Or if the strong aroma of indulging food doesn’t reach your nostrils, carry a nebulizer with you. And, take a whiff with a nebulizer that gives off the scent of strong aroma indulging food. After waiting for two or more minutes, your desire for the indulging food may disappear.
On the other hand, since non-indulging foods don’t give off as much aroma, they do not affect our rewards system so much. As a result they have less influence on what we eat.
In fact, studies done at a school cafeteria and a supermarket demonstrated these effects. In the study, participants were exposed to the aroma of indulging cookies for more than two minutes as well as lack of aroma from the non-indulging strawberries. As a result the purchases of cookies were lower than the purchases of strawberries. Indeed, the prolonged exposure to the indulging cookies induced pleasure in the brain’s reward system resulting in a diminished desire for the actual eating of the indulging cookies.
On the other hand, when exposure to the aroma of indulging cookies was less than 30 seconds, more cookies were purchased than the strawberries. So, next time you come across strong aromatic indulging foods, soak the aroma for two or more minutes before deciding on eating the indulging food.
Above all, olfactory fatigue is the common experience of losing sensitivity to smells after prolonged exposure. In fact, your body adapts to the smell. As a consequence, the effects of the smell weakens over time. And, eventually you won’t be able to recognize the smell. After prolonged exposure, olfactory fatigue allows your body to adapt to the smell so as not to overload your nervous system.
For example, smelling a cookie activates smells cells, located at the end of your nasal passage. As a result, the smell cells send chemical messages to the brain. And the brain interprets these messages before relaying them to the mouth. Indeed, this entire process is known as the olfactory referral.
Moreover, the olfactory referral happens with each breath exposing us to the smell. And, our bodies adapt to the smell with continued stimulation. As a consequence the effect of the smell weakens. In fact, our brains are programmed to tell us when smell changes. And not to tell us when things smell the same as they did a few minutes ago.
First of all, retronasal olfaction refers to acquiring smell related information through the back of the mouth. And, orthonasal olfaction refers to acquiring smell related information through the nostrils. In fact, both methods influence flavor. For example, food aroma such as vanilla causes something perceived as sweet, to taste sweeter. And, once you experience the smell of food along with its flavor, the two become associated; thus, smell influences taste and taste influences smell.
So when you smell food aroma for two or more minutes, you get the effect of having tasted it. And having tasted it satiates you. So the desire to actually eat it lessens.
Advances in automation and technology has changed the lives of hundreds of millions of people around the world. One of the consequences of these advances, has been that people spend more time sitting at home and work. In fact, millions of people spend nearly 8 hours a day sitting while at work. And, while sitting is definitely more comfortable, prolonged sitting is detrimental to your health.
Furthermore, studies show Americans spend an average of six to eight hours every day sitting in their free time. And, during that time, they are either resting, watching television, playing video games, listening to music, reading a book or working on computer while sitting.
Moreover, a 2018 survey of 5,900 adults, reported that nearly 26 percent, of those responding, sat for more than eight hours a day. While, another 45 percent, of those responding, didn’t get any moderate or vigorous exercise. Finally, nearly 11 percent were not only physically inactive but also sitting for more than eight hours a day.
Most noteworthy, a Journal of the National Cancer Institute study of 4 million individuals and 68,936 cancer patients found that long periods of sitting, increases risk of colon, endometrial, and possibly lung cancer. Furthermore, the research reported that even among healthy, active people, the risk of getting cancer increases with each two hour increases in sitting time. Presumably, the increased risk may be due to excess insulin production, which encourages cell growth. Also the lack of movement decreases antioxidants in your body. Which in turn hinders the elimination of cancer-causing free radicals. In fact, excessive sitting increases lung cancer by 54 percent, uterine cancer by 66 percent, colon cancer by 30 percent.
Above all, remedies to offset the effects of prolonged sitting include the following.
Stack sitting is a technique to prevent your back from hurting. Most of all, stack sitting is used in the absence of a backrest. Above all, as you sit, stack the bones of your spine, from top to bottom in a single column to support your head without using any muscles. Moreover, the video shows how to do stack sitting.
Similarly, stretch sitting is also a technique to prevent your back from hurting. First and foremost, sit back in a chair and curve your body forward from your waist, to elongate your back. Next, press your elongated spine against the back of the chair. Meanwhile, the video shows how to do stretch sitting.
Meanwhile, the United States Department of Health and Human Services publishes physical activity guidelines and recommendations for Americans. And these guidelines recommend that, each week, Americans do either 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activities or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activities.
In addition, the National Institutes of Health’s Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute also publishes guidelines on physical activities. And, in fact, these guidelines provide examples of physical activities that you can do around the house. Finally, these guidelines also describe physical activities that are moderately intense.
First and foremost, dementia is a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia. In fact, Alzheimer’s accounts for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases. Most of all, alzheimer’s effects worsens over time. It is a progressive disease, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over a number of years. In its early stages, memory loss is mild, but with late-stage Alzheimer’s, individuals lose the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to their environment.
Especially relevant, Alzheimer’s effects include poor sleep.
Also, nearly 10% of Americans age 65 and older and one-third of Americans age 85 and older have Alzheimer’s. Furthermore, of those with Alzheimer’s, 81 percent are age 75 or older.
First and foremost, in one study, scientists studied 119 adults aged 60 and older. Also, 80% of these adults had no thinking or memory problems. While, the others had only mild thinking or memory problems.
In any case, among these adults, the study found that adults with reduced slow-wave sleep (also known as deep sleep) or poor sleep had higher levels of the brain protein tau. Incidentally, these elevated levels of tau are one of Alzheimer’s effects. Moreover, brain damage and mental decline caused these elevated tau levels.
Hence, Alzheimer’s effects include poor sleep or reduced slow wave sleep in older adults. So, poor sleep is a warning sign for the presence of Alzheimer’s.
First of all, observational studies also found reduced slow-wave sleep as a common factor among adults, over age 65, who had amyloid beta plaques in their brain. In fact, amyloid beta plaques in the brain, are a physical sign of Alzheimer’s effects. Yet these adults did not show signs of Alzheimer’s effects, such as memory loss and cognitive decline.
Incidentally, slow-wave sleep (which is part of deep sleep phase) consolidates your memories. As a result, reduced slow-wave sleep hurts the memory consolidation process.
Especially relevant, amyloid beta proteins accumulate in the brain every day. Also, amyloid beta proteins are thought to be a waste product from the energy used by brain cells to communicate with each other. However, your brain sweeps out the excess amyloid beta proteins every night during slow-wave sleep.
Regrettably, some studies suggest that, interrupted slow-wave sleep causes build up of amyloid beta proteins to form plaque in brain tissue. Incidentally, scientists believe, this sign of Alzheimer’s effects, is also the first stage in the development of Alzheimer’s. Indeed, plaque can build up two decades before symptoms of memory loss and confusion appear.
Meanwhile, a 2015 study in Nature Neuroscience imaged the brains of 26 adults, between the ages of 65 to 81. Also, these adults had not been diagnosed with dementia and did not report any sleep problems. First, PET scans on the adults measured their brain’s amyloid beta levels. Then they were asked to memorize 120 pairs of words and tested on how well they remembered a portion of them.
The adults then slept for eight hours. During this time their brain waves were measured. And these brain waves searched for sleep disruptions, as well as to find out if they woke up during the slow-wave phase. The next morning, as they tried to recall the memorized words, their brains were scanned again.
Over all, adults with the highest amyloid beta levels in their brain had the poorest quality of sleep. Moreover these adults performed worst on the memory test. In fact, some forgot more than half of the words. In conclusion, then, improving the quality of your sleep results in the brain’s lowest amyloid beta levels.
Also, the high amyloid beta levels still remaining in the brain after sleep, likely turns to plaques. Therefore, these high residual amyloid beta levels are another growing sign of Alzheimer’s effects.
Lastly, 119 people aged 60 and over participated in a study to discover how sleep causes Alzheimer’s effects. Therefore, researchers related the participants measured brain waves, amyloid beta and tau levels with sleep. And, researchers found that decreased slow-wave sleep coincided with higher levels of tau in the brain along with a higher tau-to-amyloid ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, total sleep wasn’t a factor. In fact, people with high tau levels were sleeping longer, even taking afternoon naps, but they weren’t getting enough slow-wave sleep.
In the meantime, other studies report that aerobic exercise helps you get better sleep quality. Also, because overweight people tend to have more sleep problems, it’s important to lose weight.
In conclusion, exercising, losing weight, and practicing good sleeping habits helps you improve your sleep. Which in turn protects you from both amyloid beta plaques as well as tau proteins, both of which are growing signs of Alzheimer’s effects. In addition, good sleeping habits, like sleeping 8 hours every day, also protects you from all the other bad consequences.
Regrettably, sleeping less than 6 hours or a disturbed sleep where you were awake off and on during the night, has detrimental effects on your body. Therefore, it’s important for you to take recovery action the following day. However, to make that decision, it is useful for you to be able to recognize your sleep loss symptoms.
First and foremost, your body’s signs are listed below.
Next, your cognitive related sleep loss symptoms are listed below.
Next, your food related sleep loss symptoms are listed below.
Also, your sleep related symptoms are listed below.
And, your mood related sleep loss symptoms are listed below.
Finally, the other signs of sleep loss.
First and foremost, sleep loss increases the risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Most of all, more than a third of Americans routinely suffer from sleep loss because they don’t sleep the recommended 7 to 8 hours.
In addition, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 2017 reported that more than 100 million Americans either have diabetes or are prediabetes. Also, the CDC reports that nearly 1 in 4 Americans with diabetes don’t know they have it. And lastly almost 90 percent of prediabetes Americans aren’t aware of their condition.
When your body causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to rise higher than normal, you have diabetes (or hyperglycemia). Also, type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.
First and foremost, the pancreas produce the hormone insulin. Also, insulin enables cells in tissues and muscles to absorb glucose from blood in circulation. Most of all, tissues and muscles use the glucose to generate energy.
Regrettably, cells can become resistant to insulin. As a result, the cells are less able to absorb the glucose in the blood. And, this is called insulin resistance. As a consequence, the pancreas make extra insulin.
But, if this continues for a long time, the pancreas aren’t able to make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. As a result your blood glucose levels rise. And you have what is called type 2 diabetes.
On the other hand, sometimes the pancreas stop producing enough insulin. And because there isn’t enough insulin, cells can’t absorb enough of the blood glucose. Which also results in blood glucose levels to stay high.
In conclusion, Type 2 diabetes develops, if over time, blood glucose levels continue to stay high, cells continue to stay resistant to insulin, or the pancreas stop producing enough insulin.
Persistent sleep loss affects the circadian rhythm. In fact, disruptions to the circadian clock reduces the effectiveness of insulin and over time contributes to insulin resistance.
Moreover, the latest research indicates that insulin also operates on a daily cycle. And the circadian clock controls this cycle by changing the timing of production and release of insulin by the pancreas. In addition, there are times of the day when cells are more sensitive and less sensitive to insulin.
Sleep loss also appears to affect the health of cells in the pancreas. In fact, sleep loss creates stress in pancreatic cells and also disrupts blood glucose levels.
And, research shows that sleep loss and poor-quality sleep:
First of all, a study of 54,000 adults, reported that those who slept less than 6 hours or more than 9 hours are significantly more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
In addition, a meta-analysis of 11 studies reported that the risk of type 2 diabetes goes up as sleep loss increases as well as when they sleep become longer than 9 hours. In fact, the risk of getting type 2 diabetes was least with regular 7 to 8 hours of sleep.
Finally, four large studies reported a strong relationship between frequent sleep loss and risk of developing diabetes.
Above all, studies show that those who suffer from frequent sleep loss take up to 40% longer to properly regulate blood sugar after a high-carb meal. As a result, over time, the pancreas are subjected to added stress. And this can lead to type 2 diabetes.
Most of all, if you suffer from frequent sleep loss, you can exercise. In fact, a study reported that combining aerobic workout with resistance training improved glycemic levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the study reported that combining aerobic exercise with resistance training had better results that each workout on its own.
Following up on the combination concept, another study looked at the effect on potentially preventing or at least delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes caused by frequent sleep loss episodes. So, the study, in the Journal of Diabetes Investigations, reported that the combination resulted in at least delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Meanwhile, the study involved 10,680 Japanese women with an average age of 57.8 years. Also, these women had a mean BMI of 23.2 kg/m2. And these women participated in an exercise program with 24 minutes of combined aerobic workout and resistance training followed by 6 minutes of stretching.
In addition, the women were grouped into four categories, depending on the number of exercise sessions they attended over a 5 month period.
And, the study reported that women in category 1 had the lowest risk of getting diabetes. Next, women in category 2 also had low risk of getting diabetes. Finally, women in category 3 had about the same risk of getting type 2 diabetes as the women in category 4.
Most noteworthy, researchers found a negative linear relationship between number of sessions and risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Moreover, this negative linear relationship applied to women in all four categories. Which means that the more they worked out, the lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Furthermore, in each category, researchers found that women with lower BMI had a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than women with higher BMI.
Above all, resistance training increased skeletal muscle mass. And, the aerobic workouts used those larger muscle mass to absorb and convert to energy, more blood glucose. As a result, blood glucose levels fell and more fat was burned.
In conclusion, going on an aerobic workout combined with resistance training program is a good way to counteract the downsides from sleep loss. Moreover, the workout program may help make sleep loss less frequent.
Belly fat, along with fat elsewhere in the body, is a source of energy for your intense workout. So, the more you exercise the more belly fat burned. And, more intense workout similarly causes more belly fat to burn. Meanwhile, a signaling molecule called interleukin-6, also known as IL-6, causes the transfer of energy from belly fat to exercising muscles, needing the energy, during an intense workout.
First and foremost, visceral fat surrounds the abdominal cavity’s internal organs. Regrettably, visceral fat is really bad for you because it is responsible for cardio-metabolic diseases, cancer, dementia, and mortality. Also, visceral fat accumulates around your mid-section – resulting in an apple shaped body.
First and foremost, contracting skeletal muscles, during an intense workout, produces IL-6. Next, IL-6 enters the blood stream. Next, the liver and the white adipose tissue absorb IL-6 from the blood stream.
Upon entering the liver, IL-6 triggers conversion of glycogen to glucose. Next, the blood stream absorbs the glucose. Furthermore, the blood stream transports and releases the glucose to the starving exercising muscles.
Also, IL-6 receptors, on the white adipose tissue cells, capture IL-6 in the blood stream. And this triggers the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol. As a result, the adipose tissue cells release energy-rich free fatty acids and glycerol — a process known as lipolysis. Next, the blood stream absorbs the free fatty acids. And the blood stream transports and delivers them to the exercising muscles where they provide energy.
Above all, the amount of IL-6 produced depends directly on the intensity, duration and mode of the exercise. For instance, an intense workout like rowing, doubles the amount of IL-6 in plasma relatively quickly. On the other hand, with an endurance aerobic workout, like long distance running, the IL-6 doesn’t peak until later.
In addition, the amount of IL-6 produced is inversely related to the glycogen levels in contracting muscles. So, the glycogen starved muscles release huge amounts of IL-6. On the other hand, glycogen rich muscles release very little IL-6. Most of all, a huge and immediate release of IL-6 occurs when you exercise for a long time and/or you have an intense workout.
For instance, levels of IL-6 in blood are significantly enhanced after 30 min on a treadmill, with peak levels occurring after 2.5 hours on the treadmill. Other studies didn’t measure IL-6 levels while running but at several times after running stopped. These studies reported the highest IL-6 levels immediately after the running stopped. This was, then, followed by a rapid decline.
Most noteworthy, the kinetics of the IL-6 response differs in strength training exercises such as concentric and eccentric exercises. First of all, a concentric exercise is one where contractions shorten the muscle, while eccentric exercise is one where the contractions lengthen the muscle.
In most exercises, the targeted muscle is working to perform the action. And the muscle does the work by shortening itself – known as concentric focused action. While during the return the targeted muscle relaxes. And the muscle does so by returning to its original length – known as eccentric focused action.
For example, in an intense workout like the biceps curl, the concentric portion occurs when you bend your elbow and bring the weight toward your shoulders. And the muscles do this by shortening themselves. While the return is eccentric focused because when you relax your muscles, they lengthen to go back to their previous length.
So, when you do concentric exercises, the increase in IL-6 is related to the duration of the exercise. Most noteworthy, there is logarithmic relationship between the increase in IL-6 and duration of the exercise. And, IL-6 levels decline after completion of the concentric exercise to reach original levels within a few hours.
On the other hand, eccentric exercises cause only a modest increases in IL-6 levels. And the IL-6 levels peak at some time after the exercise ends. However, IL-6 levels stay elevated for several days after.
This role of IL-6 was recently demonstrated with obese adults doing an intense workout. In fact, exercise bikes were used, in the intense workout, to burn fat. As a result, these adults saw a decrease in their visceral abdominal fat. Above all, the demonstration clearly showed that IL-6 played a key role in the loss of visceral abdominal fat.
In fact, the before and after amounts of visceral fat was measured using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. And, a noticeable loss of visceral fat was measured. Regrettably, using a weight scale to measure body weight changes would lead to invalid results. This is because exercising increases muscle mass while also decreasing body fat. So a better approach to measuring visceral fat is to use a tape to measure waist circumference.
So what’s the takeaway.
First, it’s not any particular exercise that’s important but whether you get an intense workout doing the exercise. In fact, an intense workout is one where you sweat during the workout. Because if you don’t break a sweat, the intensity of the workout is low. Which means the body is expending little energy during the workout. And while you will burn some fat, the amount burned would be very little.
So what kind of exercises qualify? Most of us can easily name running, bicycling, fast walking, rowing, or paying tennis. But there are many others that may not be obvious because it’s not clear you can do them with intensity. For example, strength training with weights lower than your maximum, especially if you go through your workout fast enough to feel your muscles getting tired. While, on the flip side, even running wouldn’t qualify for an intensive workout, if you only do a leisurely jog that doesn’t even cause you to breathe much quicker than your normal rate.
By the same token, you also have to exercise for a sufficiently long duration. For example, because your muscles can’t take it anymore, you may finish your particular weight workout quickly. So if that happens, do a weight workout using different muscles. And, because you are doing several such workouts in sequence, you are effectively doing an intense workout over a long period of time.
Now, going back to the example of jogging. You can make up for your slow jog by jogging for a long period of time. For instance, jogging for at least one hour, would definitely tire you out, meaning you expended a lot of your energy.
In conclusion, it’s not enough to only workout. Indeed, to successfully lose belly fat, it’s necessary to also change your diet so that you don’t eat back the fat you lost by your workouts.
Resistance exercise is any form of exercise that forces your skeletal muscles (not the involuntary muscles of your heart, lungs, etc.) to contract. Furthermore, benefits of resistance exercise, sometimes referred to as strength training, includes building and maintaining your muscles. As a result, you look strong. Most noteworthy, strength training or resistance exercise also includes working with weights. And working with weights results in faster muscle development and growth.
Benefits of resistance exercise (strength training) include:
In conclusion, the many benefits of resistance exercise or strength training drives many to develop muscles, which in turn significantly helps their bodies become healthier and stronger.
Using treadmill or running machine, for either physical activity or a cardio workout, is very popular. Just go to any gym and you will see many of them occupied.
Walking, jogging, or running are one of the best cardio exercises. They improve both heart, body, and brain health. This is because they increase your breathing rate, heart rate, blood flow throughout the body and the brain and cause you to sweat.
Walking, jogging, and running are outdoor activities. But that is not always possible. Using treadmill, these cardio activities take place in the comfort of an indoor environment, be it the home or the gym.
Moreover, walking, jogging, or running on a treadmill lowers the risk of injury. And, it causes less stress on your joints than running on a hard surface such as asphalt or concrete. Furthermore, it helps you avoid twisting an ankle, tripping, or other injuries from running on uneven surfaces. Also, if you’re running at night, these running machines save you from having to run in the dark. And, you are not at the mercy of the elements, such as rain, snow, and heat. Finally, you don’t have to look out for road hazards.
Most noteworthy, depending on your need, you have a choice of several types.
First of all, the entry level treadmill, is used in the home. And, it has a small motor. However, it is not for heavy people. Moreover, it’s good for walking or jogging.
Secondly, there is the manual treadmill powered by the walker, jogger, or runner.
Next there is the folding treadmill that is folded and rolled away to storage.
Then there is the walking treadmill. Furthermore, this running machine is budget friendly, comfortable and, everything is within arm’s length of the walker.
Also, there is the running treadmill that can accommodate tall runners, uses a powerful motor, and lots of features.
Next there is the compact treadmill, which is small in size, usually foldable and rolls into storage.
Furthermore, the heavy commercial treadmill powered by powerful motors provides a smooth running platform.
In addition, there is the office treadmill, which usually has a desk at the front end of the running machine. Furthermore, the desk has a place for a laptop, keyboard, mouse, etc. Moreover, the person using this running machine walks while doing work on the computer.
Finally, there is the hybrid treadmill, like the treadclimber, which adds the benefits of an elliptical machine.
Most noteworthy, in 2014, there were over 24,000 injuries that required hospital emergency room visits. And, distractions were the main cause of these accidents. In addition, the infographic below illustrates how to safely use these running machines.
In conclusion, using treadmill is very popular among all age groups while providing significant cardio benefits to those using it.
First of all, fat burning is part of day-to-day activities and especially while exercising. Consequently, increasing fat burning results in rapid fat loss.
First of all rapid fat loss occurs when fat burning is in full swing. Also, fat burning is essentially oxidation of triglycerides. And, triglycerides are formed by combining glycerol with three fatty acid molecules. Furthermore, the three fatty acid molecules produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate.
Most noteworthy, triglycerides make up fat cells. Also, the fat cells are located in the adipose tissue, commonly known as body fat. In fact, the adipose tissue’s role is to store fat. And, the adipose tissue is all over the body, including under the skin and wrapped around internal organs.
Most of all, during exercise, the body needs energy. Also, initially it gets it from glucose in the blood. And, then, the body gets energy from the triglycerides in the fat cells. Furthermore, triglycerides oxidized by oxygen deliver energy. And, the triglycerides get this oxygen from the blood stream Also, oxidation releases three fatty acids, which are energy sources.
First of all, the lungs inhale oxygen. Then the oxygen is transferred to red blood cells in the blood stream. And, the oxygen rich red blood cells deliver oxygen to the triglycerides. Furthermore, the by-product of triglyceride oxidation is carbon dioxide and water. Consequently, the carbon dioxide and water enter the blood stream. Then, the carbon dioxide leaves the blood stream and enter the lungs. And the lungs exhale the carbon dioxide. Finally, the water in the blood stream leaves the body through the kidneys, intestines and skin pores (as sweat).
Most noteworthy, researchers from the University of New South Wales, in Australia, noticed rapid fat loss in the form of reduced weight. In fact, the majority of fat left the body as carbon dioxide. In addition, they found that oxidation of 22 pounds of human fat needs 64 pounds of oxygen. And the lungs inhale this oxygen. Consequently, oxidation produces 62 pounds of carbon dioxide and 24 pounds of water.
Furthermore, the infographic below illustrates the process. Most noteworthy, the infographic illustrates amount of fat burned by 50 year old, 5’ 8” male and female joggers in one hour.
In conclusion, faster oxidation causes rapid fat loss. And this occurs when you inhale deeply and rapidly. Finally, this occurs when you are doing aerobic exercises such as jogging, running, swimming, cycling, elliptical trainers, etc.